The thermometer is an Italian invention

In 1654, the first enclosed liquid-in-a-glass thermometer was invented by the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinand II. The Duke used alcohol as his liquid. However, it was inaccurate and used no standardized scale, thus it is not in use today.

Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit was the German physicist who invented an alcohol thermometer in 1709, and the mercury thermometer in 1714. In 1724, he introduced the standard temperature scale that bears his name – Fahrenheit Scale – that was used to record changes in temperature in an accurate fashion.